Adams, T. (1987) Computers in learning: a coat of many colours, (Eds, Kibby, M. R. and Mayes, J. T.) CAL ’87 Symposium on computer-assisted learning, University of Strathclyde, Pergamon, pp1-6.

Adler, P. (1997) Personal communication, Howarth, M. S., Stotfold.

Advise, D. P. (1982) The Primary Curriculum/Micro Interface: implications for in-service education and resource provision, In Microcomputers and children in the primary school (Ed, Garland, R.) Falmer Press, Lewes, Sussex, England, pp71-110.

Allinson, L. and Hammond, N. (1990) Learning support environments: rationale and evaluation, Computers & Education, 15, 1 1-3, pp137-143.

Anderson, A., Tolmie, A., McAteer, E. and Demissie, A. (1992) Software style and interaction around the microcomputer, Computer Education, 20, 3, pp235-250.

Andrews, R. (1996) Interpreting the new National Curriculum, Middlesex University Press, London.

Ankrum, D. R., Hansen, E. E. and Nemeth, K. J. (1995) The vertical horopter and the angle of view, (Eds, Grieco, A., Molteni, G., Picolli, B. and Occhipinti, E.) International Scientific Conference on Work with Display Units, Milan, Italy, October, 1994, Elsevier Amsterdam; New York, pp131-136.

Anzai, Y. and Simon, H. A. (1979) The theory of learning by doing, Psychological Review, 86, pp124-140.

Apple Computer Inc. (1992) Macintosh human interface guidelines, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Atkinson, J. W. and Birch, D. (1978) An introduction to motivation, D. Van Nostrand, New York.

AUCIE (2000) Riverside Explorer, Environment Agency, Hatfield. CD-ROM.

Bailey, F. and Moar, M. (2001) The Vertex Project: Children creating and populating 3D virtual worlds, Journal of Art and Design Education, 20, 1, pp19-30.

Beard, R. M. (1972) An outline of Piaget’s developmental psychology for students and teachers, New American Library, New York.

Beck, J. (1992) Visual processing in textural segregation, (Eds, Brogan, D., Gale, A. and Carr, K.) 2nd International Conference of Visual Search, Durham, Taylor and Francis, pp1-37.

Bendix, T. and Hagburg, M. (1984) Trunk posture on trapezius muscles whilst sitting at sloping desks, Ergonomics, 27, pp873-882.

Benzie, D. (1988) The implications of window type environments for developers of educational software, Computer Education, 12, 1, pp209-214.

Bergqvist, U., Wolgast, E., Nilsson, B. and Voss, M. (1995) Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal workers: Individual, ergonomic, and work organizational factors, Ergonomics, 38, pp763-776.

Berlyne, D. E. (1960) Conflict, arousal, and curiosity, McGraw-Hill, New York; London.

Bertin, J. (1983) Semiology of graphics, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin.

Billingsley, A. P. (1988) Taking Panes: issues in the design of windowing systems, In Handbook of human-computer interaction (Ed, Helander, M.) North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp413-434.

Bork, A. (1983) Computers and the future: education, (Ed, Smith, P. R.) CAL 83 Symposium on Computer Assisted Learning, University of Bristol, Pergamon, pp1-4.

Boston (1935) The psycho-biology of language, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Bowell, B., France, S. and Redfern, S. (1994) Portable computers in action, National Council for Educational Technology, Coventry.

Bower, G. H. (1972) Mental imagery and associative learning, (Eds, Gregg, L. W. and Bower, G. H.) Symposium on cognition in learning and memory: the fifth of an annual series of symposia in the area of cognition [held in April 3-4, 1969] under the sponsorship of the Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, John Wiley.

Bradbeer, R. (1982) Educational computing, (Ed, Bradbeer, R.) Educational Computing, Polytechnic of North London.

British Library (2002) The Sherborne Missal Turning the Pages on CD-ROM, [Internet]. British Library. Available from:, [Accessed, 21 November 2002].

Brown, J. and Howlett, F. (1994) Information technology works: stimulate to educate, National Council for Educational Technology, Coventry.

Browne, D. (1994) STUDIO: STructured User-interface Design for Interaction Optimisation, Prentice-Hall, London.

Bruner, J. and Mackworth, N. (1970) How adults and children search and recognize pictures, Human Development, 13, pp149-177.

Bruner, J. S. (1973) Beyond the information given: studies in the psychology of knowing, W.W. Norton, New York.

Buhler, C. (1982) Pleasure and reason as adaptations to nature’s requirements, Zygon.

Burgess-Limerick, R., Mon-Williams, M. and Coppard, V. L. (2000) Visual display height, Human Factors, 42, 1, pp140-150.

Buzan, T. and BBC (1989) Use your head, British Broadcasting Corporation, London.Campbell, J. (1988) The hero with a thousand faces, Paladin, London.

Canfield Smith, D. (1982) Designing the Star User Interface, In Human-Computer Interaction (Ed, Preece, J.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp237-260.

Carr, K. and England, R. (1995) Simulated and virtual realities: elements of perception, Taylor and Francis, London.

Carroll, J., Mack, W. and Kellogg, W. (1988) Interface metaphors and user interface designs, In Handbook of human computer interaction: mental models in human computer interactions (Ed, Helander, M.) Elsevier Science, North-Holland, pp76.

Chapman, L. J. (1987) Reading: from 5-11 years, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Clarkson, M. A. (1991) An easier interface Xerox Researchers virtual room, Byte, 16, 2, pp277-282.

Cochrane, P. (1996) Why it’s better to work flat out, In Daily Telegraph, London. 24 December.

Cogan, A. I. (1979) The relationship between the apparent vertical and the vertical horopter, Vision Research, 19, 6, pp655-665.

Cohen, L. and Manion, L. (1980) Research methods in education, Croom Helm, London.

Conklin, J. (1987) Hypertext: a survey and introduction, IEEE Computer, September, pp17-41.

Cotton, B. and Oliver, R. (1994) The cyberspace lexicon: an illustrated dictionary of terms from multimedia to virtual reality, Phaidon Press, London.

Cox, M. (1999) The impact of information technology in education: lessons from the past, King’s College, London.

Crook, C. (1992) Young children’s skill in using a mouse to control a graphical computer interface, Computers and Education, 19, No 3, pp199-207.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1992) Flow: the psychology of happiness, Rider, London.

Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M. (1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour, Planum Press, London.

Deregowski, J. B. (1980) Illusions, patterns and pictures: A cross-cultural perspective, Academic Press, New York.

DES (1987) Aspects of the work of the MEP, HMSO, London.

DfEE (1995) Information technology in the National Curriculum, HMSO, London.

DfEE (1998) ICT in schools survey, [Internet]. Available from:, [Accessed, 3 September].

DfEE (2000) Survey of Information and Communications Technology in Schools 2000, [Internet]. Available from:, [Accessed, 22 August].

Doyle, W. (1990) Themes in teacher education research, In Handbook of research in teacher education (Ed, Houston, W. R.) Macmillan, New York, pp3-24.

Eberts, R. E. (1994) User interface design, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Eco, U. (1994) Six walks in the fictional woods, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Ellis, S. R., Kaiser, M. K. and Grunwald, A. C. (Eds.) (1991) Pictorial communication in virtual and real environments, Taylor and Francis, London.

Elsom-Cook, M. T. and O’Malley, C. E. (1989) ECAL: bridging the gap between CAL and intelligent tutoring systems, CAL 89 Symposium on Computer Assisted Learning, Open University Milton Keynes, Pergamon, pp69-91.

Enns, J. T. (1988) Three-dimensional features that pop out in visual search, (Ed, Brogan, D.) Ist International Conference on Visual Search, Durham, Taylor and Francis, pp37-47.

Enns, J. T. and Rensink, R. A. (1992) A model for the rapid interpretation of line drawings in early vision, (Eds, Brogan, D., Gale, A. G. and Carr, K.) Visual Search 2: [proceedings of the second International Conference on Visual Search], Durham, Taylor and Francis, pp73-86.

Eriksen, C. W. (1988) Attentional search of the visual field, (Ed, Brogan, D.) Ist International Conference on Visual Search, Durham, Taylor and Francis, pp3-21.

Eriksen, C. W. and St James, J. D. (1986) Visual attention within and around the field of focal attention: A zoom lens model., Perception and Psychophysics, 40, pp225-240.

Erikson, T. D. (1990) Working with interface metaphors, In The art of human-computer interface design (Eds, Mountford, S. J., Laurel, B. and Apple Computer Inc) Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, pp65-73.

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (2002) Head Up Displays (HUD), [Internet]. Available from:, hud2.jpg, [Accessed, 17 July].

European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (2002) Head Up Displays (HUD), [Internet]. Available from:, hud2.jpg, [Accessed, 17 July].

Feurzig, W. (1969) Programming languages as a conceptual framework for teaching mathematics, Bolt Berenak and Newman, Cambs, MA.

Fisher, T. (1996) Information technology and the curriculum: IT capability and the new teacher, British Journal of Curriculum and Assessment, March, pp33-37.

Fiske, J. and Hartley, J. (1990) Reading television, Routledge, London.

Forster, J. (1986) Lessons in Logo, Glentop, Barnet (Herts).

Freeman, D. (1989) Multimedia learning: the classroom experience, (Ed, Kibby, M.) CAL 90 Symposium on Computer Assisted Learning, Milton Keynes, Pergamon, pp189-194.

Gardiner, M. M. and Christie, B. (1987) Applying cognitive psychology to user-interface design, John Wiley, Chichester, New York.

Gibson, J. J. (1986) The ecological approach to visual perception, LEA, Hillsdale, N.J.

Goodyear, P. (1984) Logo: a guide to learning through programming, Ellis Horwood: Heinemann Computers in Education, Chichester; London.

Gregory, R. L. (1974) Concepts and mechanisms of perception, Duckworth, London.

Grossberg, S., Ennio, M. and Ross, W. D. (1994) A neural theory of attentive visual search: interactions of boundary, surface, spatial, and object representations, Psychological Review, 101, 3, pp470-489.

Guddemi, N. F. and Mills, H. (1989) The impact of word processing and play training on literacy development, Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 1, pp29-38.

Hall, E. T. (1969) The hidden dimension: man’s use of space in public and private, Bodley Head, Garden City, NY.

Hawkridge, D. (1989) Who needs computers in schools and why?, (Ed, Kibby, M.) CAL 89 Symposium on Computer Assisted Learning, University of Surrey, Pergamon, pp1-6.

Held, R. (1974) Image, object, and illusion: readings from Scientific American, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.

Held, R. and Durlach, N. (1991) Telepresence, time delay and adaptation, In Pictorial communication in virtual and real environments (Eds, Ellis, S. R., Kaiser, M. K. and Grunwald, A. C.) Taylor and Francis, London, pp232-245.

Hill, S. G. and Kroemer, K. H. E. (1986) Preferred declination of the line of sight, Human Factors, 28, 2, pp127-134.

Horney, M. (1993) Case studies of navigational patterns in constructive hypertext, Computers & Education, 20, 3, pp257-270.

Howarth, M. S. (1995a) Pros and cons of NCET Project CD-ROMs, Report No: 4. pp1-30, London, British Broadcasting Corporation.

Howarth, M. S. (1995b) What makes children click, (Ed, Medhat, S.) Keynote speech, International Conference on Multimedia Communications, Southampton, Society for Computer Simulation International, pp5-10, 11-12 April.

Howarth, M. S. (1997) Visual elements and container metaphors for multi-media, British Journal of Educational Technology, 28, 2, pp125-135.

Howey, K. R. (1977) Pre-service teacher education: lost in the shuffle?, Journal of Teacher Education, 28, pp26-28.

Hoyles, C., Sutherland, R. and Evans, J. (1985) The Logo Maths Project: a preliminary investigation of the pupil centred approach to the learning of Logo in the secondary school mathematics classroom 1983-84, University of London: Institute of Education, London.

Hubel, D. H. (1988) Eye, brain, and vision, Scientific American Library, New York.

Intriligator, J. and Cavanagh, P. (2001) The spatial resolution of visual attention, Cognitive Psychology, 43, pp171-216.

Johnson, J., Roberts, T., Verplank, W., Smiths, D. C., Irby, C. H., Beard, B. and Mackey, K. (1989) The Xerox Star: a retrospective, Computer 22, 9, pp11-26, 28-29.

Johnson, P. (1992) Human computer interaction: psychology, task analysis and software engineering, McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead.

Kalawsky, R. S. (1993) The science of virtual reality and virtual environments: a technical, scientific and engineering reference on virtual environments, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham.

Kapa, E. (1999) Problem solving, planning ability and sharing processes with Logo, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15, 1, pp73-84.

Karwowski, W. and Marras, W. S. (1999) The occupational ergonomics handbook, CRC Press, Florida.

Kibby, M. R. and Hartley, J. R. (1995) Computer-Assisted Learning, University of Cambridge, Pergamon, 10-13 April.

Kroemer, K. H. E., Kroemer-Elbert, K. E. and Kroemer, H. B. (1994) Ergonomics: how to design for ease and efficiency, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1980) Metaphors we live by, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1999) Philosophy of the Flesh: the embodied mind and its challenge to western thought, Basic Books, New York.

Laurel, B. (1991) Computers as theatre, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham.

Laurillard, D. M. (1993) Re-thinking university teaching: a framework for the effective use of educational technology, Routledge, London.

Laurillard, D. M. (1994) Multimedia and the changing experience of the learner, (Ed, Ryan, M.) Proceedings Asia Pacific Information Technology in Training and Education Conference and Exhibition, APITITE 94, Brisbane, Aust., pp19-24.

Layman, J. and Hall, W. (1988) Logo: a cause for concern, (Eds, Kibby, M., R and Mayes, J. T.) CAL ’87 Symposium on computer assisted learning, University of Strathclyde, Pergamon, pp107-112.

Leventhal, L. W., Teaslley, B. M., Instone, K. and Farhat, J. (1994) Age related differences in the use of Hypertext, experiment and design, Hypermedia, 6, 1, pp19-33.

Lipner, R. S. (1994) Ph D Strategy preferences in computer display navigation: possible implications for gender differences (human computer interaction), Drexel University, Philadelphia.

Mackworth, J. F. (1970) Vigilance and attention – a signal detection approach, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Mackworth, N. (1965) Visual noise increases tunnel vision, Psychonom Science, 3, pp67-68.

Maddess, T., James, A. C., Goldberg, I., Wine, S. and Dobinson, J. (2000) A spatial frequency-doubling illusion-based pattern electroretinogram for glaucoma, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 41, 12, pp3818-3827.

Maddux, C. (1993) Past and Future Stages in Educational Computing Research, In Approaches to research on teacher education and technology, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. (Eds, Waxman, H. C. and Bright, G. B.) Charlottesville, Virginia, USA., pp1-14.

Malone, T. W. and Xerox Corporation Palo Alto Research Center (1981) What makes things fun to learn? a study of intrinsically motivating computer games, Xerox Corporation Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto.

Mamassian, P. and Landy, M. S. (1998) Observer biases in the 3D interpretation of line drawings, Vision Research, 38, pp2817-2832.

McDevitt, A. (1994) The applications of C-D ROMs in primary schools: a case study, Middlesex University School of Education.

McFarlane, A. (Ed.) (1997) Information technology and authentic learning: realising the potential of computers in the primary classroom, Routledge, London.

McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A. and Heald, Y. (2002) Report on the educational use of games. pp48, Cambridge, Department for Education and Skills.

Mountford, S. J., Laurel, B. and Apple Computer Inc. (1990) The art of human-computer interface design, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Munn, P. and Drever, E. (1995) Using questionnaires in small scale research, The Scottish Council for Research in Education.

Naylor, T. H. (1966) Computer simulation techniques, John Wiley, Chichester.

NCET (1994a) CD-ROM in Primary Schools Initiative: guidance document for schools: CD-ROM titles reviews, National Council for Educational Technology, Coventry.

NCET (1994b) Integrated learning systems: a report of the pilot evaluation of ILS in the UK January 1994 to July 1994, National Council for Educational Technology, Coventry.

Nicholls, J. and Richardson, W. (1995) Aiming for a college education 1990-94, Coventry: Centre for Education and Industry, University of Warwick.

Norman, K. L. (1994) Navigating the educational space with hypercourseware, Hypermedia, 6, 1, pp35-55.

Noss, R. (1984a) Children in control, In Times Educational Supplement, pp47

Noss, R. (1984b) Children learning Logo programming: interim report No. 2 of the Chiltern Logo Project, Advisory Unit for Computer Based Education, Hatfield.

Noss, R. (1984c) Learning with Logo – is the teacher necessary?, Advisory Unit for Computer Based Education, Hatfield.

Noss, R. (1984d) A parents guide: a parents guide to educational software for computers at home and at school, Chiltern MEP Logo Project, Advisory Unit for Computer Based Education, Hatfield.

Noton, D. and Stark, L. (1974) Eye movement and visual perception, In Image Object and Illusion, Scientific American (Ed, Held, R.) W H Freeman, pp113-121.

O’Hagan, F. J. and Anderson, A. (1989) Dyadic interactions at the microcomputer interface: a case study in computer assisted learning, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 5, 2, pp114-124.

Ocean, H. and Tchalenko, J. (1998) Double Portrait Tate Exhibition 1998, London.

Papert, S. (1980) Mindstorms: children, computers and powerful ideas, Basic Books, New York.

Pheasant, S. (1986) Bodyspace anthropometry, ergonomics and design, Taylor and Francis.

Piaget, J. (1952) The origins of intelligence in children, International Universities Press, New York.

Protherough, R. and Open University (1983) Developing response to fiction, Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Quaranta Leoni, F. M., Molle, F., Scavino, G. and Dickmann, A. (1994) Identification of the preferential gaze position through evaluation of visual fatigue in a selected group of VDU operators, Documenta Opthalmologic, 87, pp189-197.

Rayner, K. (1998) Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research, Psychological Bulletin, 124, pp372-422.

Reichle, E. D., Rayner, K. and Pollatsek, A. (2002) The E-Z Reader Model of eye movement control in reading: Comparisons to other models, Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Robson, C. (1993) Real world research: a resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers, Blackwell, Oxford.

Ross, P. and Howe, J. A. M. (1981) Teaching mathematics through programming: ten years on, In Computers in Education (Eds, Lewis, R. and Tagg, D.) North Holland, Amsterdam, pp143-148.

Rubin, N., Nakayama, K. and Shapley, R. (1996) Enhanced perception of illusory contours in the lower versus upper visual hemifields, Science, 271, pp651-653.

Russell, T. (Ed.) (1996) Information technology in education: implications, practice and ideas, Middlesex University Press, London.

Sage, M. and Smith, D. (1983) Microcomputers in education: a framework for research: a consultative document for the SSRC Education and Human Development, Social Science Research Council, London.

Sawtry Community College (2002) Quality of Teaching and Learning ICT, [Internet]. Bedford Education Action Zones, Department of Education and Skills. Available from:, [Accessed, 22 August].

Sedgwick, H. A. (1992) The effects of viewpoint on the virtual space of pictures, (Eds, Brogan, D., Gale, A. and Carr, K.) 2nd International Conference of Visual Search, Durham, Taylor and Francis, pp460-476.

Self, J. (1985) Microcomputers in education: a critical appraisal of educational software, Harvester Press, Brighton.

Setzer, V. (1989) Computers in education, Floris, Edinburgh.

Sewell, D. (1990) New tools for new minds, a cognitive perspective on the use of computers with young children, Harvester Wheatsheaf, London.

Shaw, K. (Ed.) (1982) Micro computers in the classroom perspectives, School of Education University of Exeter, Exeter.

Sheedy, J. E. (1990) Video displays terminals: solving the vision problems, Problems in Optometry, 2,1, pp1-16.

Simpson, M. and Tusin, J. (1995) Using observations in small-scale research, The Scottish Council for Research in Education, Edinburgh.

Skinner, B. F. (1968) The technology of teaching, Appleton-Century Crofts, New York.

Smeaton, A. (1991) Using Hypertext for computer based learning, Computers in Education, 17, 3, pp173-179.

Smets, G., Overbeeke, K. and Gaver, W. (1994) Form-giving: expressing the non-obvious, Conference on human factors and computing systems, Boston United States, Addison-Wesley, pp204, April 24-28.

Solomon, C. (1982) Introducing Logo to children, Byte, 7, 8, pp196-208.

Stenhouse, L. (1975) Using case study in library research, Social Science Information Studies, 1, pp221-230.

Stoper, A. E. and Cohen, M. M. (1991) Optical, gravitational and kinaesthetic determinants of judged eye level, In Pictorial communication in virtual and real environments (Eds, Ellis, S. R. and Kaiser, M. K.) Taylor and Francis, London, pp390-403.

Tabachnick, B. R., Popkwetiz, T. S. and Zeichner, K. M. (1980) Teacher education and the professional perspectives of student teacher, Interchange, 10, pp12-29.

Tagg, R. (1985) A parents guide to educational software for computers at home and at school, Telegraph Publications, London.

Tait, K. (1984) The building of a computer based teaching system, Computers & Education, 8, 1, pp15-19.

Taylor, M. M., Neel, F. and Bouwhuis, D. G. (1991) Introduction: dialogue and multinodal dialogue, In The structure of multinodal dialogue (Eds, Taylor, M. M., Neel, F. and Bouwhuis, D. G.) Elsevier, New York, pp3-10.

Taylor, R. P. (1980) The computer in the school: tutor, tool, tutee, Teachers College Press, New York.

Tizard, B. and Hughes, M. (1985) Young children learning, Harvard University Press.

Tognazzini, B. (1992) Tog on interface, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Tuan, Y. (1977) Space and place, The perspective of experience, Edward Arnold, London.

Tufte, E. R. (1985) The visual display of quantitative information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, Connecticut.

Turkle, S. (1984) The second self: computers and the human spirit, Simon and Schuster, New York.

Van Essen, D. C., Newsome, W. T. and Maunsell, H. R. (1984) The visual field representation in striate cortex of the macaque monkey: asymmetries, anisotropies, and individual variability, Vision Research, 24, pp429-448.

Vygotsky L. S. and Cole, M. (1978) Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1962) Thought and language, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Watson, D. (1986) Generating language learning with CAL, Computer Education, 10, 1, pp181-187.

Watson, D. (1989) The classroom vs the computer room, (Ed, Kibby, M.) CAL 89 Symposium on Computer Assisted Learning, University of Surrey, Pergamon, pp33-37.

Watson, D. M. (1984) The role of CAL in decision-making in the humanities, Computers & Education, 8, 1, pp31-34.

Waxman, H. C. and Bright, G. W. (1986) Approaches to research on teacher education and technology, Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville.

Waxman, H. C. and Walberg, H. J. (1986) Effects of early field experiences, In Advances in teacher education, Vol. 2 (Eds, Katz L. G., Backus J. M., Raths, J. and Haberman, M.) Ablex, Norwood, N.J., pp165-184.

Wellington, J. (1985) Testing turtle, In Times Educational Supplement, pp52. June 21.

White, S. (1994) Hypermedia for resource based learning, (Ed, Kibby, M.) CAL 94 Symposium on Computer Assisted Learning, Madingley Hall, Cambridge, Pergamon.

Wishart, J. (1990) Cognitive factors related to user involvement with computers and their effects upon learning from an educational computer game, Computers & Education, 15, 1-3, pp145-150.